Chemistry Week #6

Read the Textbook pp 100-109.

Answer the following…

Kitchen Chemistry Homework #6

Homework Questions:

1. Why can’t you have any egg yolk if you want make meringues?
2. Why are copper bowls best to whip egg whites in?
3. Why can’t you use a plastic bowl to whip egg whites?
4. What physical property describes a foam?
5. What happens to the egg foam when you cook it?
6. Why do we add cornstarch to the custard?
7. How can we prevent the meringue from collapsing?
8. What is the purpose of adding sugar?
9. Typically meringues have cream of tarter added to them. Why don’t you think we don’t have them in our recipe?

The recipe for Friday is…

Mile-High Lemon Meringue Tarts From Women’s Day, February 1, 2001, page 124

Ingredients:

Lemon filling
• 2/3 cup white sugar
• 2 tablespoons cornstarch
• 2/3 cup water
• Yolks from 2 large eggs (reserve whites for meringue)
• 1/3 cup fresh lemon juice (from 1 – 2 lemons)
• 1 tbsp. freshly graded lemon peel (from 1 lemon)
• 1 tbsp. stick butter
• 1 package (4 oz) ready-to-fill single-serve graham cracker crusts ( 6 per package)

Meringue
• Whites from 4 large eggs
• 1/2 tsp Cider Vinegar
• 1/2 tsp. Vanilla extract
• 1/2 cup sugar

Method:

Lemon filling

Whisk sugar and cornstarch in the top bowl of a double boiler to mix.
Whisk in water, egg yolks and lemon juice until smooth.
Place bowl over double boiler, stirring often with the whisk.
Boil, stirring constantly, 1 minute or until filling is translucent and thick.
Remove from heat. Add lemon peel and butter; stir until butter melts.
Pour 1/2 cup into each cracker crust and place on a rimmed baking sheet

Meringue:

Heat oven to 350F.

Beat egg whites, vinegar and vanilla in a medium metal or copper bowl with a whisk until soft peaks form when whisk is lifted.
Gradually beat in sugar, 1 tbsp. at a time, increasing whisking speed and beating well after each addition until sugar dissolves.
Beat 2 minutes longer or until stiff peaks form when beaters are lifted Mound Meringue high on each tart, spread to edge of crust , then swirl with back of a teaspoon

Bake 20 minutes or until meringue is browned an instant-read thermometer inserted in center of meringue registers 160F.

Cool completely on a wire rack, then refrigerate at least 2 hours or up to 8. If you wish to share one, use a small sharp knife dipped in cold water to cut through the meringue smoothly.

Psychology Lecture 4 : Skinner

We will not be meeting Thursdays at 1pm to discuss the week’s lecture and reading. If you would like to watch the lecture together we can set aside Tuesdays at 1pm for that but if everyone is ok with watching the lectures on their own, we can skip that and just plan on meeting Thursdays.

For this Thursday (in order of importance. The first two are the most important. The other two readings are less important)

Watch —> Lecture 4 https://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-4

Read —> Gray, Peter. Psychology (5th edition), chapter 4

Read —> Chomsky, Noam. “A Review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 129-137

Read —>Watson, John B. and Rosalie Rayner. “Conditional Emotional Reactions.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 117-129

Psychology :: Lecture 4 :: Skinner

This week’s lecture and readings will look at Behaviorism and BF Skinner. Please watch the lecture and read the readings in preparation for our discussion on Tuesday. 

Gray, Peter. Psychology (5th edition), chapter 4

Chomsky, Noam. “A Review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 129-137

Watson, John B. and Rosalie Rayner. “Conditional Emotional Reactions.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 117-129

Chemistry :: Week 5

We will be examining scones and coffee this week. Please read pp. 549-550, 386-387, 433-441 in the textbook and answer the following questions.

 Scone Specific Questions: 

1. How does vinegar curdle milk? 

2. What is the chemical process that happens when vinegar is added to milk? 

3. What happens to the sugar on top of the scone when you cook the scone? 

4. Why don’t you want to knead the scone dough for a long period of time? 

5. Could you make this scone with baking powder instead of baking soda? If you wanted to use baking powder, what ingredient is not necessary?Why? 

Coffee Specific questions 

1. How and where was coffee discovered? 

2. What are the two types of coffee that are extensively cultivated? 

3. There are four main steps to coffee roasting, first roasting, first crack, pyrolysis, and then second crack. Please describe what is happening at each stage. 

4. How much caffeine is in an average sized cup? 

5. Caffeine has been described as the most widely used drug in the world. What is the main target of caffeine in the body? (think receptor/ligand interaction and identify the target receptor) 

6. What happens when you stop drinking your daily coffee? why? 

7. What are the three main ways that coffee can be decaffeinated? 

8. What contributes chemically to the staling of coffee? 

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