The Future of Cars

I created a spreadsheet for you to claim your research topic on The Future of Cars

Feel free to add your own topic if you don’t see one you like. I would like you to research the topic and be able to explain it to us. Think about the who, what, when, where, why, and how of your topic. The list I came up with includes:

  • Flying cars
  • Hydrogen fuel cells to power cars
  • Autonomous driving cars
  • LiDAR in cars
  • Stirling Engine
  • Connected cars (networked with other cars to avoic accidents, efficient traffic)
  • Cars made of carbon fibre, plastic, composite materials for light weight
  • Customized/individualized cars with new manufacturing techniques (3D printing, etc)
  • Smart cities and smart roads

Feel free to add your own topic to the spreadsheet if you don’t like one of these. Oh, and please do your research before class instead of while class is going on.

How do cars work?

How does an internal combustion engine work?

Explain what these things do:  Cylinders, valves (inlet and outlet), pistons, carburetors (fuel injectors), sparkplug, crankshaft, gearbox.

Explain what this means: 5.21 liter V8 Engine producing 526 HP and 429 lb/ft of torque

How does an electric motor work?

Explain: Rotor, stator, brushes. Induction motor vs permanent magnet motor

How does a hybrid car work?


Cars: Your Dream Car

For the first class, I would like you to come prepared to present your dream car (or maybe just a car that is interesting, intriguing, exciting, etc.) Be ready to share some pictures/videos and some facts about the car. Also be prepared to talk about why you selected this particular car.

Kitchen Chemistry : Crème Brûlée

pp. 680-691

What will happen chemically to the sugar when we heat it with the blowtorch?
Why would you want to reduce the heat near the end of heating a sugar syrup?
How does stirring impact crystal size?
What are some non-crystalline candies? What techniques are used to prevent crystal formation?

Crème Brûlée Adapted from Epicurious Food (
For Custard:
• 2 cups whipping cream
• 1/2 cup sugar
• 1 vanilla bean, split lengthwise
• 5 large egg yolks

For Crème Brûlée
• 12 teaspoons sugar


Making custard
• Preheat oven to 325 F.
• Mix cream and sugar in heavy medium saucepan.
• Using small sharp knife, scrape seeds from vanilla bean. Add seeds and bean to saucepan.
• Stir over medium heat until sugar dissolves and mixture comes to simmer.
• Cover pan, reduce heat to very low and simmer gently 10 minutes to infuse flavors
• Strain into large measuring cup
• Whisk yolks in medium bowl until well blended. Gradually whisk in hot cream mixture just to blend.
• Return custard to measuring cup
• Divide among ramekins
• Pour enough hot water into pan to come halfway up sides of ramekins
• Carefully transfer pan to oven
• Bake custards until almost set in center when gently shaken, about 35 minutes.
• Let cool 30 minutes
• Chill at least 3 hours and up to 2 days

Making Crème Brûlée
• Sprinkle 2 teaspoons sugar evenly over each custard.
• Working with 1 custard at a time, hold blowtorch so that flame is 2 inches above surface.
• Direct flame so that sugar melts and browns, about 2 minutes
• Refrigerate until custards are firm again but topping is still brittle, at least 2 hours, but no longer than 4 hours so that topping does not soften
• You can garnish crème brûlée with fruit

Chemistry :: Ice Cream

pp. 39-44
1. How do you make ice cream creamy instead of icy?
2. Why doesn’t ice cream freeze at the typical freezing point?
3. What was traditionally done to lower the temperature enough to make ice cream?
4. What makes good tasting ice cream? What things do you need to balance out to make it the best?
5. What is the difference between standard ice cream, frozen custard, and gelato?
6. What happens to the top layer of ice cream in the freezer?
7. How can you help prevent spoilage of the top layer?
8. What is the proper temperature for storing ice cream? Eating ice cream?
9. What flavor ice cream do you want to make? What toppings?
10. Do you prefer a bowl or cone? Waffle cone or cake cone?

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