Kitchen Chemistry : Week 7 : Jams, Jellies, and Preserves

Week #7

Reading pp 296, 605-614 Pectin and Partners for Perfect Preserves

Homework Questions
1. What is the difference between a jam, jelly and preserve?
2. What is the purpose of making jam?
3. Why do we add sugar to the recipe?
4. Where does pectin come from?
5. What is the purpose of the pectin?
6. Why do we have to boil the jars before we put our jam in?
7. If the lid does not seal after the jam has cooled what does that mean?
8. How does the low sugar version of pectin work?

Recipe
Strawberry or other Berry Jam
From Certo package insert

Yield is about 8 cups of jam
Ingredients:
• 4 cups crushed fruit (this is about 2 quarts of fresh fruit or 2.5 pounds of frozen, thawed fruit)
• 7 cup white sugar
• 1 pouch of liquid Certo

Method:
• Start the dishwasher with the jam jars. The best jars are the Mason Jars with the lid, glass jar and screw bands. To achieve the best seal, it is best to put the jam into a hot glass jar, so time the dishwasher accordingly.
• Prepare fruit. For berries, crush the fruit with a potato masher to the desired chunkiness.
•Measure the exact amount of prepared fruit into a 6 or 8 quart saucepan. It is best to use a pot in which the fruit does not go above about one quarter of the depth to prevent the jam from boiling over
• Stir sugar into fruit
• Bring mixture to full rolling boil ( a boil that does not stop bubbling when stirred) on high heat stirring constantly
• Stir in Certo quickly. Return to full rolling boil and boil exactly 1 minute stirring constantly. Remove from heat. Skim off any foam with a spoon.
• Using a 2 cup measuring cup, ladle quickly into prepared jars, filling to within 1/8 inch of tops. Wipe jar rims and threads. Cover with flat lids, then screw bands tightly.
• Invert jars for 5 minutes, then turn upright.
• After jars cool, check seals by pressing middle of lid with finger. If lid springs back, lid is not sealed and refrigeration is necessary.
• Let stand at room temperature 24 hours. Store unopened jams in a cool dark place up to 1 year. Refrigerate opened jams up to 3 weeks.

Chemistry Week #6

Read the Textbook pp 100-109.

Answer the following…

Kitchen Chemistry Homework #6

Homework Questions:

1. Why can’t you have any egg yolk if you want make meringues?
2. Why are copper bowls best to whip egg whites in?
3. Why can’t you use a plastic bowl to whip egg whites?
4. What physical property describes a foam?
5. What happens to the egg foam when you cook it?
6. Why do we add cornstarch to the custard?
7. How can we prevent the meringue from collapsing?
8. What is the purpose of adding sugar?
9. Typically meringues have cream of tarter added to them. Why don’t you think we don’t have them in our recipe?

The recipe for Friday is…

Mile-High Lemon Meringue Tarts From Women’s Day, February 1, 2001, page 124

Ingredients:

Lemon filling
• 2/3 cup white sugar
• 2 tablespoons cornstarch
• 2/3 cup water
• Yolks from 2 large eggs (reserve whites for meringue)
• 1/3 cup fresh lemon juice (from 1 – 2 lemons)
• 1 tbsp. freshly graded lemon peel (from 1 lemon)
• 1 tbsp. stick butter
• 1 package (4 oz) ready-to-fill single-serve graham cracker crusts ( 6 per package)

Meringue
• Whites from 4 large eggs
• 1/2 tsp Cider Vinegar
• 1/2 tsp. Vanilla extract
• 1/2 cup sugar

Method:

Lemon filling

Whisk sugar and cornstarch in the top bowl of a double boiler to mix.
Whisk in water, egg yolks and lemon juice until smooth.
Place bowl over double boiler, stirring often with the whisk.
Boil, stirring constantly, 1 minute or until filling is translucent and thick.
Remove from heat. Add lemon peel and butter; stir until butter melts.
Pour 1/2 cup into each cracker crust and place on a rimmed baking sheet

Meringue:

Heat oven to 350F.

Beat egg whites, vinegar and vanilla in a medium metal or copper bowl with a whisk until soft peaks form when whisk is lifted.
Gradually beat in sugar, 1 tbsp. at a time, increasing whisking speed and beating well after each addition until sugar dissolves.
Beat 2 minutes longer or until stiff peaks form when beaters are lifted Mound Meringue high on each tart, spread to edge of crust , then swirl with back of a teaspoon

Bake 20 minutes or until meringue is browned an instant-read thermometer inserted in center of meringue registers 160F.

Cool completely on a wire rack, then refrigerate at least 2 hours or up to 8. If you wish to share one, use a small sharp knife dipped in cold water to cut through the meringue smoothly.

Psychology Lecture 4 : Skinner

We will not be meeting Thursdays at 1pm to discuss the week’s lecture and reading. If you would like to watch the lecture together we can set aside Tuesdays at 1pm for that but if everyone is ok with watching the lectures on their own, we can skip that and just plan on meeting Thursdays.

For this Thursday (in order of importance. The first two are the most important. The other two readings are less important)

Watch —> Lecture 4 https://oyc.yale.edu/psychology/psyc-110/lecture-4

Read —> Gray, Peter. Psychology (5th edition), chapter 4

Read —> Chomsky, Noam. “A Review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 129-137

Read —>Watson, John B. and Rosalie Rayner. “Conditional Emotional Reactions.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 117-129

Psychology :: Lecture 4 :: Skinner

This week’s lecture and readings will look at Behaviorism and BF Skinner. Please watch the lecture and read the readings in preparation for our discussion on Tuesday. 

Gray, Peter. Psychology (5th edition), chapter 4

Chomsky, Noam. “A Review of B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 129-137

Watson, John B. and Rosalie Rayner. “Conditional Emotional Reactions.” In The Norton Psychology Reader. Edited by Gary Marcus. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006. pp. 117-129

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